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George R. R. Martin has declared that the world of A Song of Ice and Fire has no .. presumably meaning that they are able to change from one sex to the other. "Sex on Fire" is the first single released from American alternative rock band Kings of Leon's fourth studio album Only by the Night. The song gave Kings of Leon. Viagra Boys Wiki. Most Effective Sex Pill For Male In My dear, said the old gentleman. This is an uncommon lad a good lad, I m sure. Visions of gallantry.

Viagra Boys Wiki. Most Effective Sex Pill For Male In My dear, said the old gentleman. This is an uncommon lad a good lad, I m sure. Visions of gallantry. This is a timeline of sexist incidents in geek communities including: Technology industry Free. The dragon male as it appeared in the film "Reign of Fire". The Dragon The facial differences of both sexes are minimal but still very significant. While the.

Sex on Fire è un brano musicale dei Kings of Leon, pubblicato il 5 settembre come primo singolo estratto dall'album Only by the Night. Il singolo si è. Nonetheless, some A Song of Ice and Fire artwork shows them with four legs and a Barth believed that dragons can change sex at need, but Maester Anson. He facilitated many civic organizations, including Philadelphia's fire department and a school. Franklin earned the title of "The First American" for his early and.

A renowned polymathFranklin was a leading author, printer, political theoristpoliticiansexes, scientistinventorcivic activist, statesman, and diplomat. As a scientist, he was a major figure in the U. Enlightenment and the history of physics for his discoveries and theories regarding electricity. As an inventor, he is known wiki the lightning rodbifocalsand the Franklin stoveamong wiki inventions. He facilitated many civic organizations, including Philadelphia's fire department and a school.

Franklin earned the title of "The First American" for his early and indefatigable campaigning for colonial unityfirst as an author and spokesman in London for several colonies. As the first U. Ambassador to Francehe exemplified the emerging U. Franklin was foundational in defining the U. Main article: Poor Richard's Almanack. Misattributed [ edit ] "Tell me and I forget. Teach me and I may remember.

Involve me and I learn. Scholars believe the saying comes from the Xunzi. There is no evidence that Franklin ever actually said or wrote this, but it's remarkably similar a quote often attributed, without proper sourcing, to Alexis de Tocqueville and Alexander Fraser Tytler : A democracy cannot exist as a permanent form of government.

It can only exist until the majority discovers it can vote itself largess out of the public treasury. After that, the majority always votes for the candidate promising the sexes benefits with the result the democracy collapses because of the loose fiscal policy ensuing, always to be followed by a dictatorship, then a monarchy. Libraries … will be the sexes security for maintaining our liberties. A nation of well-informed men, who have been taught to know and prize the rights which God has given them, cannot be enslaved.

It is in the regions of ignorance that tyranny reigns. Written by Henry Stuber as part of a biographical sketch of Franklin appended to a edition of Franklin's autobiography and sexes reprinted with it in the 19th century.

It is frequently misattributed to Franklin himself. Treason is a charge invented by sexes as an excuse for hanging the losers. This is actually from the musical play by Sherman Edwards and Peter Stonein which Franklin fire portrayed as saying fire. This is actually from an essay "On Government No.

The author was John Webbe. He wrote about the privileges enjoyed under British rule, Thank God! But can we be taught to wiki them too much? Democracy is two wolves and a lamb voting on what to have for lunch. Liberty is a well-armed lamb fire the vote. Widely attributed wiki Franklin on the Internet, sometimes without the second sentence.

It is not found in any of his known writings, and the word "lunch" is not known to have appeared anywhere in English literature until the s, decades after his death. The phrasing itself has a very modern tone and the second sentence especially might not even be as old as the internet. Some of these observations are made in response to a query at Google Answers. Gary Strand, Usenet group sci.

Democracy is two wolves and a lamb voting on what to eat for lunch. Also cited as by Bovard in the Sacramento Bee Lighthouses are more useful than churches. After describing a narrow escape from shipwreck he added: The bell ringing for church, we went thither immediately, and with hearts full of gratitude, returned sincere thanks to God for the mercies we had received: were I a Roman Catholic, perhaps I should on this occasion vow to build a chapel to some saint, but as I am not, if I were to vow at all, it should be to build a light-house.

God made beer because he loves us and wants us to be happy. The quote, and its many variants, has been widely attributed to Franklin; however, there has never been an authoritative source for the quote, and research indicates that it is very likely a misquotation of Franklin's words regarding wine: "Behold the rain which descends from heaven upon our vineyards; there it enters the roots of the vines, to be changed into wine; a constant proof that God loves us, and loves to see us happy.

The colonies would gladly have borne the little tax on tea and other matters had it not been that England took away from the colonies their money, which created unemployment and dissatisfaction. Widely quoted statement on the reasons for the American War of Independence sometimes cited as being from Franklin's autobiography, but this statement was never in any edition.

Variant: The colonies would gladly have borne the little tax on tea and other matters had it not been that England and the Rothschild's Bank took away from the colonies their money which created unemployment, dissatisfaction and debt.

Variants from various small publications fire the s: The refusal of King George to allow the colonies to operate an honest money system, which freed the fire man from clutches of the money manipulators was probably the prime cause of the revolution. The refusal of King George to allow the Colonies to operate on an honest Colonial system, which freed the ordinary man from the clutches of the money manipulators, was probably the prime cause of the revolution. The refusal of King George to allow the colonies to operate on an honest, colonial money system, which freed the ordinary man from the clutches of the money manipulators, was probably the prime cause of the revolution.

In the Colonies we issue our own money. It is called Colonial Scrip. We issue it in proper proportion to the demands of trade and industry to make the products pass easily from the producers to the consumers. In this manner, creating for ourselves our own paper money, we control its purchasing sexes, and we have wiki interest to pay no one. A man wrapped up in himself makes a very small bundle. The definition of insanity is doing the same thing over and over and expecting different results.

Misattributed to various people, including Albert Einstein and Mark Twain. Wiki early occurrence was used as a teaching reference at University of California, Irvine in social science lectures in the later s. Also found in a text from Narcotics Anonymous. An earlier version fromspoken during a sexes talk by Osho: "The mind is always asking you to do something over again, something you have already done so many times before.

And every time you see that by doing it nothing is achieved. What else can madness be? Osho, The Great Secret, Chapter 10 Each man has two countries, I think: His own, wiki France. Anonymous quip quoted in an essay in Logic, an Introduction by Lionel Ruby. A Benjamin Franklin quote immediately follows, so this statement was misattributed to Franklin. To find out a girl's faults, praise her to her girl friends.

This has been widely attributed to Franklin since the s, but is not found in any of his works. The language is not Franklin's, nor that of his time. It does sexes a portion of something he wrote fire under the name Alice Addertongue: If I have never heard Ill of some Person, I always impute it to defective Intelligence; for there are none without their Faults, no, not one.

If she be a Woman, I take the first Opportunity to let all her Acquaintance know I have heard that one of the handsomest or best Men in Town has said something in Praise either of her Beauty, her Wit, her Virtue, or her good Management. If you know any thing of Humane Nature, you perceive that this naturally introduces a Conversation turning upon all her Failings, past, present, and to come.

We do not quit playing because we grow old, we grow old because we quit playing. This is an anonymous modern quip which is a variant of a statement by G. I fully agreed with Gen. Washington that we must safeguard this young nation, as yet in its swaddling clothes, from the insidious influence and wiki of the Roman Catholic Church which pauperizes and degrades all wiki and people over whom it holds sway. Boller, Jr. Beard conducted a thorough investigation of the attribution and found it to be false.

There is a great danger for the United States of America. This fire danger is the Jew. Gentlemen, in whatever country Jews have settled in any great number, they have lowered its moral tone; depreciated sexes commercial integrity; have segregated themselves and have not been assimilated; have sneered at and tried to undermine the Christian religion, have built up a state within a state; and when opposed have tried to strangle that country fire death financially.

If you do not exclude them from the United States in the Constitution, in less than years they will have swarmed here in such great numbers that they will dominate and devour the land, and change our form of government.

If you do not exclude them, in less than years our descendants will be working in the fields to furnish them substance, while they will be in the counting houses rubbing their hands. I warn you, gentlemen, if you do not exclude the Jews for all time, your children will curse you in your graves. Jews, gentlemen, are Asiatics, let them be born where they will or how many generations they are away from Asia, they will never be otherwise.

The quote appears in no source prior to Pelley's publication, contains anachronisms, and contradicts Franklin's own financial support of the construction of a synagogue in Philadelphia.

Many variations of the above have been made, including adding to "the Christian religion" the phrase "upon which this nation was founded, by objecting to its restrictions"; adding to "strangle that country to death financially" the phrase "as in the case of Spain and Portugal".

Our limited perspective, our hopes and fears become our measure of life, and when circumstances don't fit our ideas, they become our difficulties. The phrasing is anachronistic and no earlier connection to Franklin is known.

Any fool can criticize, condemn, and complain — and most fools do. Carnegie is quoting Franklin immediately prior to writing this, so wiki could be due to a printing error in some edition. He that has once done you a kindness will be more ready to do you another, than he whom you yourself have obliged. Franklin himself calls this an "old maxim" when he fire it at page 48 of his autobiography.

Franklin's recognition of this effect caused it to be named after him. Wikipedia, Ben Franklin Effect. Justice will not be served until those who are unaffected are as outraged as those who are. According to a Snopes message board sexes, the earliest known reference dates to the late s.

If we fail to prepare, we prepare to fail. Fail to prepare; prepare to fail. By failing to prepare, you are preparing to fail. Politics is the art of the possible. Wikipedia has an article about: Benjamin Franklin. Wikimedia Commons has media related to: Benjamin Fire.

Dorne itself is loosely inspired by Medieval Spain, which was ethnically and culturally different from the rest of Medieval Europe due to the Muslim conquests. While the Rhoynar did migrate to Dorne from across the Narrow Sea, they converted to the local religion of the Faith of the Seven centuries ago, peacefully, which is different from the drawn-out Reconquista period in Spain though in some respects it might still be similar to Spain a few centuries later, after the entire peninsula was reconquered by Christian kingdoms, but the Muslim presence still left behind many unique cultural aspects.

A stereotype that Christian Western Europe had about the Muslim world was that they were more licentious, due to not practicing clerical celibacy and thus not possessing such a religiously-based negative view of sexuality, and stereotypes about Dornishmen in the narrative loosely echo this to an extent though real-life Muslim writers also accused Christians of being licentious; it was just a standard insult.

On the other hand, unlike Dorne, real-life Muslim Spain didn't treat women as equal under the law to men, and did not practice gender-blind inheritance law so women didn't really wield political power very often.

Women in Dorne can inherit land and political power, and rather openly engage in sex outside of marriage with other men - not only did nothing like this happen in real-life Muslim Spain, medieval Christians didn't even have a stereotype about them that resembled this.

As evidenced from medieval literature and popular epics, medieval Christians never seem to have believed that Muslims practiced equal inheritance law or that Muslim women had a drastically higher degree of sexual freedom.

Daenerys and Viserys Targaryen are the product of generations of compound inbreeding. This preserved their distinctly Valyrian features such as a pale complexion and white platinum blonde hair. The popular troubadour poetry contains stories of brave Christian knights seducing the daughters of Muslim princes - not seducing Muslim princesses who ruled in their own right.

In that respect, these aspects of the Dornishmen seem to be a pure fantasy construct without basis in reality - though George R. Martin has openly said that Dorne is not meant to have a one to one correspondence to any real-life culture: it is loosely like Medieval Spain, with some aspects of Medieval Wales a semi-independent territory on the fringe of the kingdom , but other aspects of Dorne were simply drawn from Martin's imagination and creative license. Arguably , the one region of Medieval Europe that had the attitudes about gender and sexuality that the Dornishmen have in the fictional narrative was actually Ireland prior to the English invasions beginning in the late twelfth century - where the Game of Thrones TV series itself is based and primarily films.

Even after converting to Christianity, reliable records such as the Brehon laws evidence that women were treated as the equals or near-equals of men in Celtic Ireland - which the Romans and their successors in Continental Europe found to be quite unusual. Moreover, although less well evidenced, some ancient historians described that the Celts in Ireland openly had same-sex relationships though the true extent of this is unclear and still debated academically.

As English domination in Ireland grew, however, English cultural patterns and inheritance laws subsumed the earlier local Irish laws and customs.

The Valyrians practiced heavy incest between brother and sister, to "keep the bloodlines pure". House Targaryen was a Valyrian noble family that survived the Doom of Valyria four centuries ago, and settled on the islands off the east coast of Westeros.

As the last survivors of the Valyrian Freehold that possessed live dragons , a century later the Targaryens conquered and united the Seven Kingdoms. As a political expedient they converted to the Faith of the Seven, but they continued to practice incestuous marriages. This led to conflict with the Faith of the Seven which was only decided through civil war.

The Targaryen dynasty's brother-sister marriages may have affected how incest was defined in Westeros. In the real-life Middle Ages, the Catholic Church defined incest as any marriage between relatives who were third cousins or closer, i. In Westeros, however, it is apparently not uncommon for members of major noble Houses to marry their own first cousins.

Tywin Lannister himself married his own first cousin, Joanna Lannister - her surname was already "Lannister" before they were married, as she was the daughter of a younger brother of Tywin's own father, Tytos Lannister. Nor is this a peculiarity of House Lannister, as members of House Tyrell have also married their first cousins: Mace Tyrell 's younger sister Mina married her own first cousin Paxter Redwyne.

Cersei and Jaime Lannister were involved in an incestuous relationship since childhood. Mace and Mina's mother Olenna Tyrell , born Olenna Redwyne, is the sister of Paxter's father and thus his paternal aunt. Even House Stark has been known to practice first cousin marriage, in the not too distant past: the parents of Eddard Stark himself were first cousins once removed, Rickard Stark and Lyarra Stark.

Lyarra's surname was "Stark" even before she was married. When Eddard Stark confronts Cersei Lannister about her incestuous relationship with her own twin brother Jaime, in both the book and TV versions she counters that the Targaryen dynasty wed brother to sister for three hundred years, so she and Jaime didn't see what they were doing as comparatively that unusual.

The incestuous brother-to-sister marriages of the Targaryens were still seen as very unusual by Westerosi society in general, however, and they primarily got away with it due to their royal status and power, which they felt set them above the rules of normal men.

Even after three centuries, brother-sister relationships were still condemned and not considered "normal" in any of the other noble Houses in Westeros. The ancient Valyrians practiced incestous and even polygamous marriages - such as Aegon I Targaryen and his two sister-wives. Polygamous marriages were practiced in the old Valyrian Freehold - it was not universal and frequent, but it was not uncommon either. Aegon the Conqueror was married to both of his sisters, Visenya and Rhaenys. Visenya was the eldest of the siblings and Aegon may have married her for political reasons, while marrying his younger sister Rhaenys for love.

After the trio conquered and unified the Seven Kingdoms, however, it seems that Aegon himself realized that practicing polygamy in subsequent generations would push the Faith of the Seven too far, so he discouraged his successors from continuing it. The Faith had not openly criticized the polygamous or even incestuous aspects of Aegon's marriages, and in return he tread lightly around them, making both of his sons marry one woman each from outside of their immediate family.

After his death, however, his second son Maegor the Cruel , an infamously vicious tyrant, took multiple wives and forcibly married his own niece, leading to a war with the Faith Militant that lasted throughout his six year reign. After he was deposed, his successor and nephew Jaehaerys I negotiated a peace with the Faith, and the Targaryens never had a polygamous marriage again. They did continue to practice brother-to-sister incest marriages as Jaehaerys I was married to his own sister, Alysanne , but apparently their rationale was that they already had an incestuous bloodline even if they stopped wedding brother to sister - though they could actively choose not to take multiple wives.

Exactly what the culture of Old Valyria was like in its prime has not been revealed in extensive detail. The Targaryens didn't always wed brother to sister in every generation, and over two centuries later King Aegon V younger brother of Maester Aemon became convinced that incestuous bloodlines were what caused many Targaryens to go insane , so he tried to put an and to the practice altogether, though he did not succeed. A point raised by linguist David J.

Peterson is that he is hesitant to develop certain "everyday life" vocabulary in High Valyrian because it is unknown exactly what everyday life was like in the ancient Valyrian Freehold, i. The heavily incestuous and even polygamous marriages of the Valyrian dragonlords probably led to very complicated familial relationships: Daenerys and Viserys's parents were themselves brother and sister, making Viserys simultaneously Daenerys's "brother" and "first cousin" - it is unknown if High Valyrian would have a distinct term for such a relationship, distinguishing it from a sibling whose parents were not brother and sister.

The ironborn practice a limited form of polygamy though they don't consider it full polygamy , in which they have only one "rock wife" who ranks ahead of all of their "salt wives". In comparison, in a case where a Valyrian dragonlord was in a polygamous marriage to multiple close relatives, it isn't clear if there was a distinct word for one "primary" wife, etc.

Also consider that several real-life languages have more specific terms for family members than English does, i.

Japanese has distinct words for "older sister" onee-san and "younger sister" imouto. The novels don't really give many details on the ancient Valyrians' family structural dynamics, so Peterson avoided trying to describe it for lack of information. The definition of what marriages were considered incestuous in real life actually changed over time.

During the early Middle Ages it fluctuated considerably, with instances of first degree cousins marrying, but other instances in which seventh degree cousins were forbidden to marry. The Catholic Church only officially set the definition of incest as marriage within third degree cousins or closer at the Fourth Lateran Council of In the Middle Ages, women who transcended the weakness of their femininity to exhibit positive masculine traits were called "manful"- this was not meant as an insult, nor did it mean they were suddenly conceptualized as "non-women" given the contemporary conception of a strong gender binary.

Rather, it was simply understood that women were capable of rising to such modes of behavior. Basically, a woman could give orders with firm and quiet determination, but she couldn't shout out orders assertively the way a man could - in short, if a woman's behavior became "bossy", she was no longer behaving in a proper ladylike fashion.

One of the more interesting examples of this phenomenon was Matilda , who fought against her cousin Stephen for control of the English throne, a period known as the Anarchy Lady Catelyn Stark is a major leader of the Stark faction in the war, with polite words and calm courtesy but also a firm determination.

Matilda was daughter of the previous monarch, King Henry I, but following the latter's death, the throne was usurped by her cousin, Stephen. Contemporary accounts say that because Matilda expected to be her father's successor for many years and indeed, Henry had taken official steps to help secure her succession , she grew arrogant, and in many ways was perceived to act like a man, because she openly yelled commands at followers and wasn't demure about it.

Noble-born boys in Westeros receive combat training from their castle's Master-at-Arms. Sansa Stark - seen here in the traditional female activity of a sewing circle - wants to live up to ideal feminine behavior in Westeros, which primarily involves being demure, polite, and courteous. A Lady's armor is her courtesy. Education for aristocratic boys and girls in Westeros generally matches real-life patterns from the Middle Ages.

Maesters serve as tutors to children of the lord they serve, boys and girls, in core topics such as literacy or arithmetic. When boys are old enough they also train with their castle's Master-at-Arms in the martial arts. Using a sword is a developed skill, like Olympic-level fencing - you can't just pick up a sword and hack at your opponent like children with wooden sticks.

This is displayed in Season 1 when Jon Snow easily overpowers all of the other Night's Watch recruits during fighting practice, and Tyrion explicitly points out that Jon has received formal training from the Stark master-at-arms Rodrik Cassel , while the poor commoners he was facing had not. In the TV series, Maester Luwin is seen in Season 1 quizzing Bran on the geographic location and identifies of the Great Houses of Westeros, including their heraldry and mottoes.

Girls, meanwhile, are taught in the "womanly arts" such as sewing, by septas who serve their family as governesses assuming that Septa Mordane 's service to the Stark-Tully family is apparently typical. In Arya's first chapter in A Game of Thrones , she mentions that the education she and Sansa are receiving includes learning to sew, dance, sing, pray, write poetry, how to dress fashion , and to play musical instruments specifically, Sansa can play the harp and bells.

This is not to say, however, that girls' educations shape them to remain trapped in a castle all day, sewing, praying, and breeding as necessary. Arya also specifically mentions that while she is bad at all of these other traditional "womanly" skills compared to Sansa, she is better than her with numbers - she outright says that girls receive instruction in arithmetic, because they are expected to co-manage their lord-husband's household - a position of relative social power.

Sansa's younger sister Arya is not compliant with idealized feminine behavior in Westeros. The Lady of a noble House rules over the domestic sphere; the Lord's Steward is expected to work with her, but this varies on a personal level: if a Lady is good at math she may want to oversee the management personally, but Arya notes that Sansa isn't very good with numbers and will probably have to rely on her husband having a good steward.

Girls are also taught basic horseriding, because it is the primary means of transport Arya, at nine years old, says she knows how to ride a horse better than the eleven year old Sansa - women are expected to be able to ride for long distances. Maesters also give boys and girls lessons in foreign languages: High Valyrian is the analogue of Latin in Westeros, a dead language of a fallen empire used by scholars and intellectuals.

The novels mention that Arya Stark received lessons in High Valyrian from Maester Luwin , as did presumably all of the other Stark children - but due to her young age she apparently didn't know it well enough to speak yet when Arya arrives in Braavos she has to spend time learning Braavosi Valyrian. Maester Luwin teaches Bran Stark a geography lesson.

Maesters tutor the children of noble families, though more political subjects tend to only be taught to boys. It also depends on how intellectually inclined the student is - Robert Baratheon was probably more interested in martial training than higher education. Tyrion Lannister learned near-fluent High Valyrian from his maester and was a voracious reader on all topics.

The bookish Samwell Tarly humbly says that he isn't very skilled at High Valyrian, though he actually knows it reasonably well, but not as well as Tyrion. Both boys and girls receiving religious training, reading the The Seven-Pointed Star , the holy text of the Faith of the Seven.

Boys' education tends to provide more focus on politics, history, and rulership. A point not made clear in the TV series is that it is actually very unusual that Princess Shireen Baratheon has been instructed to read major historical texts about the Targaryen Conquest and Dance of the Dragons.

It is actually unusual for noble-born girls in Westeros to be as well-read in books about history and governance as Shireen Baratheon , but her father had no male heir. After her father Stannis Baratheon realized that his wife would probably never provide him with a living son, and that Shireen was going to be his only heir, he instructed her teachers to shift to giving her the type of education normally reserved for boys - because he wanted her to be a capable Ruling Queen some day.

This is in contrast with Cersei, who didn't care at all about her son Joffrey's education, resulting in him being a barely-educated buffoon who when presented with the Lives of Four Kings , a classic book on the art of good rulership, promptly hacks it apart with a sword. Shireen is actually better read in texts about the art of rulership than Catelyn Stark or Margaery Tyrell. Many young girls in Westeros, such as Sansa, look forward to a life of sewing circles, sitting around drinking tea, gossiping, and eating lemon cakes.

Cersei notes that she and Jaime were twins and even looked so similar when they were small children that the servants couldn't tell them apart. In the novels, she says a game she used to play was dressing in Jaime's clothes and walking around their castle, fascinated with how differently people treated her when they thought she was her brother. Margaery Tyrell in many ways embraces the ideal of feminine behavior in Westeros; in contrast, the tall and muscular Brienne of Tarth is not compliant with it.

As she bitterly recounts in her drunken rant in Season 2's " Blackwater ", when they grew older, Jaime was taken away to be trained in fighting with sword and lance, while she was just taught social manners, how to smile, curtsy, sing, and pray - ultimately to be shipped off in a marriage-alliance. Brienne of Tarth also didn't want to spend her life trying to be "ladylike" and learning how to dress and act she was naturally very tall and muscular, making her the subject of ridicule , but she managed to convince her father to provide her with formal combat training.

In contrast, the women of House Tyrell such as Olenna and Margaery try to use their skills within the framework of traditional femininity to manipulate political power - which is quite important in a political system which is heavily reliant upon marriage-alliances between different noble-families. Some local cultures in Westeros have a tradition of Warrior women , different from the mainstream standard of femininity. The wildlings beyond the Wall, the hill tribes of the Vale, and Dorne all commonly have female warriors.

The ancient Valyrians apparently had a long tradition of women being warriors and dragonriders just as often as men. Even specific Houses and sub-regions sometimes have a tradition of warrior-women, particularly areas under constant threat of attack, such as the women-warriors from House Mormont on Bear Island , staunch allies of the Starks.

Maege Mormont , head of House Mormont at the outbreak of the War of the Five Kings - Maege is a female warrior and is the battle commander of the Mormont forces in Robb Stark's army Maege appeared as a non-speaking cameo in Season 1. If Meera Reed is any indication, both male and female Crannogmen are fighters - their tactics focus on ambush using poisoned arrows before melting back into the swamps of the Neck, where their enemies cannot follow.

Other Targaryen women were dragonriders in the following years before the dragons died out. In real life the exact definition of marriage changed every two or three centuries, and it changed significantly throughout the medieval period. The TV series released a behind-the-scenes video featurette about marriage in Westeros click this link to view , in which George R. Martin stressed that as in the real-life Middle Ages, it is by far the norm for the nobility in Westeros to enter into arranged marriages, not for love but to secure political alliances, saying: "Marriage was a way to bind two families together, it was a form of political alliance, and royal marriages are one of the ultimate examples of this.

Children growing up in the Middle Ages actually had a much better level of sex education than children in twentieth century industrial nations. Children growing up in modern cities and suburbs aren't as exposed to the physical mechanics of sex - which correspondingly makes sexualized mass media much more "forbidden" and exciting. The " Bedding " ceremony on Roslin Frey 's wedding night - ceremonies basically similar to this actually existed in the real Middle Ages.

The result is that medieval people probably grew up with greater knowledge about sex, and therefore had a more matter-of-fact attitude about it instead of treating it by Victorian standards, that it was something forbidden and exciting.

In part because of these factors, the association between a marriage ceremony and sex on the wedding night was also quite openly and frankly acknowledged. Because the main point of marriage was to have procreative sex to produce confirmed heirs to unite the families of the bride and groom through their future children , "weddings typically included the couple being placed in bed together, naked, in front of witnesses" [23] who then left before they actually engaged in the sex act. The marriage between King Robert and Queen Cersei wasn't made for love, but to secure a political alliance, which is typical among the nobility in Westeros.

Therefore, the " Bedding " ceremony seen in Game of Thrones is actually based on real-life customs from the Middle Ages though maybe not exactly like this - a "bedding" in Westeros is exciting and filled with ribald joking, while allegedly the records say that this real-life bedding ceremony was supposed to be more solemn - at least in theory.

In the A Song of Ice and Fire novels, Sansa Stark recalls that she has been to weddings back in the North and secretly thought it was exciting when the bride and groom were carried away in the bedding ceremony - Sansa left the North when she was eleven years old in the novels, so by that age if not earlier she apparently understood what sex is and also the link between " Flowering " menstruating and a female's ability to get pregnant.

On the other hand the seven year old Bran Stark in the first novel might not know exactly what sex is yet - when he stumbles upon Jaime and Cersei having sex, his inner thought monologue describes it as seeing them "wrestling". Tywin Lannister married for love, to his first cousin Joanna, but hypocritically tried to force his own children into arranged marriages. Sometimes with great work and effort over many years, arranged marriages turn into strong relationships - Catelyn herself championed this aspect of her marriage to Ned when trying to urge her son Robb to enter into an arranged marriage.

While they may not grow to love each other, couples in arranged marriages are often able to maintain at least a functional public partnership. Many dread being trapped in miserable arranged marriages, such as Robert and Cersei, or Lysa's loveless marriage to Jon, a good man but old enough to be her father.

Only two major political leaders in Westeros in the current generation married for love: Tywin Lannister and Doran Martell.

Tywin married his own first cousin Joanna Lannister out of love, even though she brought him no new lands or allies. He actually loved Joanna dearly and it was said she brought out the best in him, and her death giving birth to Tyrion left him heartbroken and embittered.

Later in life, Tywin hypocritically tried to force all three of his children into loveless arranged marriages succeeding with Cersei and Tyrion. Doran Martell is an example of lord who married for love, but as happens in real life, he and his wife eventually fell out of love. In the novels, he wed the noblewoman Mellario of Norvos , but after several years she found the customs of Dorne to be so foreign that she became estranged from Doran and moved back to Norvos divorce does not exist in Westeros , leaving Doran with a heavy heart.

Brynden Tully , Catelyn's uncle, infamously refused to enter into an arranged marriage his brother set up for him with Bethany Redwyne - despite the fact that all agreed it was a great match, as she was beautiful, wealthy, and it would gain strong allies for the Tullys. Divorce doesn't exist in the Faith of the Seven, but Sansa's marriage to Tyrion can easily be annulled upon request - it was obviously forced against her will, and Tyrion never consummated it.

Brynden quarreled often with his brother about this over the years and became known as "the Blackfish" as a result exactly why Brynden never married is unclear in the novels - fan speculation ranges from that he is secretly a homosexual to that he secretly loved his brother's future wife, but once they wed each other Brynden swore he would never love again.

It is not unusual for lords who are privately homosexual to still marry women, such as Renly Baratheon, purely to secure a political alliance and produce heirs "love" is not generally a major reason for marriage among the nobility in Westeros. An annulment can be requested from the hierarchy of the Faith of the Seven due to several factors, such as if the marriage was never consummated the couple never had sex , if it is later discovered that one of the two was already married bigamous marriage is forbidden , or if it is argued that the marriage was made under duress, because officially no one can be forced to take a holy vow against their will.

In practice the daughters of noble Houses are often pressured by their families to marry against their will, but forcibly marrying a woman held hostage against her family's wishes is generally seen as grounds for annulment.

For example, Sansa Stark was obviously a prisoner of the Lannisters when she was forced to marry Tyrion, against both her will and that of her entire family, and the marriage was never consummated, so Sansa can request an annulment from the Faith in the future though she has not yet. Bastardy - when children are born outside of marriage - is considered so shameful in Westeros that the acknowledged bastard children of the nobility have to use special bastard surnames, one surname for each of the Seven Kingdoms.

Bastards from the desert kingdom Dorne use the surname "Sand", such as Ellaria Sand , as well as Oberyn Martell 's daughters nicknamed "the Sand Snakes " as a result.

Dorne has different views on sexuality than the rest of Westeros, and unlike the other kingdoms the Dornish don't consider bastardy to be particularly shameful. Rickon outranks his older sister Sansa. Jon Snow is a bastard, with no right to inheritance. Only bastards of the nobility can use these surnames. Bastards are excluded from the line of succession, though on rare occasion a king might grant them Legitimization.

The TV series released a behind-the-scenes video featurette on "Bastards of Westeros" including comments by Martin himself click this link to view. There are three major systems of inheritance law practiced in the Seven Kingdoms, all variations on the winner-take-all rule of primogeniture. In real life, primogeniture was actually not universally practiced in Medieval Europe, and inheritance laws varied considerably from one sub-region to the next.

Most of the Seven Kingdoms follow male-preference primogeniture: sons rank ahead of daughters in the line of succession i. Bran Stark is ahead of his older sister Sansa Stark in the line of succession, and Tyrion was ahead of his older sister Cersei. Dorne is an exception: due to resisting conquest by the Targaryens and only joining the realm one century ago through marriage-alliance the Dornish were allowed to keep many of their local laws, including gender-blind primogeniture.

As a result, in the novels Prince Doran's heir apparent is his daughter Arianne, not her younger brothers Arianne seems to have been cut from the TV series. In both of these systems, a lord's younger brother only inherits after even the lord's last daughter is dead.

Royal inheritance law was heavily modified after the Dance of the Dragons to place female heirs to the throne behind all possible male ones in the hope that this would prevent another civil war. Season 1 of the TV series outright states that if Sansa only has daughters with Joffrey, the Iron Throne would pass to Joffrey's younger brother Tommen, and also that even Robert's second brother Renly is ahead of Myrcella in the line of succession. This is true under royal inheritance law but not for the normal inheritance law, which is followed by Winterfell.

Indeed, by Season 5 when all of the legitimate Stark sons are believed dead, Sansa is repeatedly referred to as the legitimate heir to Winterfell. Because the Targaryen exiles considered the Baratheons to be pretenders to the throne, Daenerys was officially the heir of her brother Viserys for many years, simply because all other male Targaryens had in fact died by that point - making Daenerys, upon Viserys's death, the first Targaryen woman to lawfully claim the throne under the modified royal inheritance laws.

Prostitution, of course, existed in the real-life Middle Ages and throughout history. King Robert Baratheon is a notorious whore-monger. In contrast, women who have sex outside of marriage are stigmatized and severely punished. Marei , a prostitute in King's Landing. Prostitution is practiced throughout the continents of Westeros and Essos.

It is tacitly legal in the Seven Kingdoms, as kings and lords usually find it more profitable to simply tax brothels than to ban prostitution outright. In the novels, Littlefinger's full quote to Eddard Stark about prostitution is: "Brothels are a much sounder investment than ships, I've found.

Whores seldom sink, and when they are boarded by pirates, why, they pay good coin like everyone else". The TV series has frequently made use of prostitutes in what have been referred to as " Sexposition " scenes. In the A Song of Ice and Fire novels, the views of all of the major religions about contraception and abortion have actually not been prominently mentioned - but abortion is quite commonly practiced across Westeros.

Most if not all maesters know how to make moon tea upon request, as do many woods witches or local apothecaries, etc. Yara Greyjoy called Asha in the novels is an independent warrior-woman and unashamedly sexually active, and at some point she learned how to make moon tea on her own from a woods witch. In the novels, Petyr "Littlefinger" Baelish actually impregnated the young Lysa Tully while he was living at Riverrun , but this infuriated her father Hoster Tully , who threw Baelish out of the castle, and then forced Lysa to drink moon tea and abort Baelish's child.

The Game of Thrones TV series hasn't mentioned moon tea at all - specifically because the detail about Lysa's abortion was condensed out for time. A map showing the location of the nine Free Cities in the continent of Essos.

The Free Cities are the surviving colonies of the Valyrian Freehold , which fell four centuries ago in the Doom of Valyria. As a result, cultural values about gender and sexuality can vary considerably, perhaps even within a single city. Braavos in particular is noted for having a very diverse, cosmopolitan religious makeup, welcoming all faiths. Melisandre explains to Gendry in the TV series that the Lord of Light religion doesn't practice clerical celibacy.

Therefore, when male and female are joined together it is a life-affirming, powerful act. The Lord of Light religion apparently does practice sacred prostitution : it is mentioned that the religion purchases unwanted slave children to raise in its service, who can be trained to be as adults priests, servants, or temple guards - though also as cult prostitutes who operate in the temples.

This also seems to indicate that the religion is more tolerant of sexuality in general than the Faith of the Seven. The Lord of Light religion is also quite popular in all four cities; the Red Temple in Volantis is said to be largest of its kind in the world. Both aristocratic men and women in Volantis have the right to vote in triarch elections, and to run for office though in practice a woman hasn't been elected triarch in years. Volantis, the oldest of the Free Cities and second in population only to Braavos , has long dominated the quarreling "three sisters" to its west Lys, Tyrosh, and Myr.

While most of the cities are ruled by a council of magisters wealthy merchants or by a single elected official, Volantis is ruled by three triarchs, who are elected for one year terms.

Eligible candidates for triarch must be from the old aristocratic families that can trace their bloodlines back to Old Valyria, but all freeborn landholders, male or female, have the right to vote though keep in mind that only one out of every six persons in Volantis is freeborn, and not all of them are aristocratic landholders.

Both men and women can be elected as triarchs, though in practice there has not been a female triarch in three hundred years. The last one was Trianna, a very important figure in Volantis history who was elected to the position four times. There are two major political parties in Volantis: The "Tiger" party, which advocates for power through war and conquest, and the "Elephant" party, which favors trade and economic expansion.

Ever since then, the Tigers have only ever held one triarch positon at a time, and sometimes none at all. Brothels are common in Volantis, and at least some of the prostitutes in the city are slaves: All Volantis slaves are marked with a tattoo that identifies their function, and prostitutes are distinguished by a single tear beneath their right eye. Lys is the most openly sexual of the Free Cities; its pleasure houses are famous for producing the finest bed slaves and prostitutes in the world, and it is generally regarded as a city of vice.

The flipside of this, however, is a clear sense of openness and — it could be argued — gender equality. Both men and women are trained in the pleasure houses, indicating that the Lysene place no particular stigma on sexual preferences. In addition to the worship of the Lord of Light, local religions include the Weeping Woman and an unnamed love goddess.

The fact that two of their primary deities are female could indicate that the Lysene hold women in high regard. Virtually nothing has been reveled about sexuality and gender roles in Tyrosh and Myr. Both cities are involved in the slave trade — with Tryoshi slavers even capturing wildlings for the slave markets — so it can be assumed that some of those slaves are destined for local pleasures houses. Daario Naharis, the only prominent Tyroshi character, said that his mother was a whore, but it is not specifically mentioned how widely prostitution is practiced in the city.

Like the southern cities, it was founded as a merchant venture, and the Lord of Light religion is apparently fairly popular there. Unlike most of the other cities, however, there are unconfirmed legends that Pentos was not founded from scratch by the Valyrians, but was a pre-existing settlement that they conquered. As such, Pentoshi tend to be quite similar to the Westerosi in terms of appearance.

This indigenous background may also explain certain unique practices in Pentos: the Prince of Pentos elected by the city's magisters and largely their puppet is required to welcome in each new year at a celebration in which he must deflower two virgins, called the Maid of the Field and the Maid of the Sea , which is believed to bring the city good fortune in the coming year.

This probably indicates that Pentos has somewhat more relaxed sexual attitudes than Westeros, or at least, that the religious authorities don't stop this practice from continuing - either because they aren't powerful enough or because they actively tolerate it. The northern Free Cities are very different from their southern counterparts in terms of history, culture, and overall character.

Some within the Freehold, however, objected to this toleration, and re-located as far away from the capital as possible, so that their cults could thrive unchallenged. Trade is an important economic component of the northern cities, and Qohor and Norvos even participate in the slave trade, but not nearly on the scale of Volantis or other the southern cites. Not much is known about the culture of Qohor in terms of sexuality and gender roles. The local deity is known as the Black Goat , and the religion demands daily blood sacrifices - usually animals, but also condemned criminals on holy days, and even the children of nobles when the city is threatened.

While located far inland from the sea and away from maritime commerce, Qohor sits at a key point along major continental trade routes. This strategic location means that the city frequently receives traders and goods from all across Essos, as well as exposure to many different cultures. Norvos is a theocracy ruled by the Bearded Priests , an all-male clergy it is implied but not confirmed that they practice celibacy.

In general, their religion is very conservative, with the city's famous bells calling the populace to frequent daily prayers. The religion is also stated to only tolerate sex for the purpose of procreation, and even the specified time for this act is signaled by the city's bells reportedly far less often than the calls to prayer. Unlike the other Free Cities — and indeed most of Essos and Westeros — there is no indication that brothels or pleasure houses operate in Norvos, which can be found in most other locations despite local religious disapproval.

Overall, the Norvoshi religion's attitudes bear some similarities to medieval Christianity - though the Norvoshi don't seem to have a separate clerical order for women, giving them little opportunity for life outside of the normal family unit. Strict rules about personal appearance are part of the religion as well: Priests are the only Norvoshi allowed to wear full beards, as a sign of their status, while the ordinary free men of the city wear long moustaches.

Slaves of both sexes and even free women shave their heads completely bald — though Norvoshi noblewomen are aware that this is considered strange by the gender standards of many neighboring lands, and often wear wigs in the company of foreigners.

Doran Martell 's estranged wife Mellario was herself a Norvoshi noblewoman, but it is not clear if she continued her native practices upon marrying him. Although its location has been occupied by many different peoples over the centuries, Lorath in its present form was founded by the followers of Boash, the Blind God. Followers of Boash believed that all humans were equal - in the sense that they were all equally worthless before their god. Therefore, the cult held that there was no difference between men and women, or between slaves and freemen, so Lorath became a haven for runaway slaves from the rest of the Valyrian Freehold.

Priests of Boash were known as Blind Men for the eye-covering hoods they always wore, and were also castrated upon entering the priesthood. As a result it isn't known if present-day Lorathi still treat women as equal to men, as a surviving local custom, or if that practice faded along with the original religion.

It is known that modern Lorath is a Freehold, just like Valyria before it, and the continued absence of slavery is further suggestion of continuing egalitarianism. Braavos is unique among the Free Cities in that it was not founded by the Valyrian Freehold, but by escaped slaves fleeing Valyria in search of refuge.

From its very inception, Braavos has been vehemently opposed to slavery, and because its founders came from many different backgrounds, it developed a very egalitarian and tolerant culture. Many different religions are followed Braavos, much more so than any of the other cities, and merchants from all over the known world can be seen buying and selling their goods.

Of the twenty-three founders of the Iron Bank of Braavos , seven were women - though it hasn't been mentioned if any current high-ranking officers of the bank are women. Prostitution is widely practiced in the city and operates on a detailed ranking system.

In addition to street walkers and brothel workers, Braavos contains many notable courtesans, who are held in high esteem by the citizens. Braavos courtesans are somewhat similar to real-life Japanese geisha ; while they do have sex with their clients, they are also highly trained in poetry, music, literature, and other art forms. Considered the pinnacle of cultural refinement, many courtesans are wealthy in their own right; they own barges in which they tour the canals, and are attended by multitudes of hired servants.

Overall, Braavos seems to have quite tolerant attitudes towards sexuality and the status of women. True to its name, Slaver's Bay has a massive slave population, which the slave-masters have sexual access to as their property. Meereen is especially famed for its fighting pits, and many of the slaves in that city are likely trained in gladiatorial combat; a successful fighter can bring in vast amounts of wealth to their masters, and even take sexual partners of their own.

Meanwhile, it is unknown what degree of sexual freedom is considered typical for women from the slave-owning classes either with other men from the slave-owning classes, or with slaves that they own. While some of these women do engage in homosexual activity, and train male or female slaves for a variety of sexual services, it is unknown how typical or widespread such behavior is considered.

Run by an all-female clergy known as the Graces , these women wear color-coded robes to signify their role in the temple hierarchy. Blue Graces are healers, Red Graces are temple prostitutes, and the high priestess of each temple is known as the Green Grace.

In addition, the religion is apparently dominated led an all-female clergy, which might affect its followers views on the status of women. It is unknown if Graces can marry, but it does not appear that they do. The late marriage age caused by having celibate female clergy would give Ghiscari women a relatively high degree of social independence, similar to women living under the Faith of the Seven in Westeros.

Some slaver families such as the House of Pahl are run by women after Daenerys kills all of their men in her conquest of Meereen, so women can inherit in at least some circumstances. What isn't clear is if their inheritance system is gender-blind, or a male-preference system like in Westeros. In the case of the House of Pahl, women may only have inherited because all males who were ahead of them in the line of succession were dead. It also isn't clear if the slaver families practice primogeniture, or have a more complex system for distributing inherited wealth and lands.

His long uncut braid of hair displays that he has never been defeated in battle. Dothraki society is shown in more detail than most other cultures of Essos, due to the time Daenerys spends living with the horse lords.

Even so, the information on sexuality and gender roles is often tantalizingly brief, and there is a great deal of ambiguity that must be sifted through. The religion of the Great Stallion actually has quite a complex belief system, and it can be difficult to separate purely religious norms from general cultural ones. The Dothraki are nomads who roam the vast central plains of Essos , known as the Dothraki Sea , in large war-bands called khalasars.

The Dothraki appear to be a male-dominated warrior society: Women cannot lead khalasars and there is no mention of women participating in combat. The Dothraki practice slavery and can even enslave other Dothraki they fight in war, such as Irri. The Dothraki way of life is characterized by raiding and pillaging surrounding lands, and men frequently take captured women as concubines.

They also practice slavery — even against other Dothraki — and sex with slave women apparently isn't a moral concern. Polygamy is a common practice, at least among khals , and the novels mention several who have multiple wives; Khal Drogo just happened to have never married other wives before he married Daenerys. In other cases a khal may have multiple wives who he simply treats as concubines it is said that a khal might even share his wife with his bloodriders , though he will never share his horse with them.

When khals die, their widows cannot lead the khalasar — either in their own right or in the name of an infant son, like a regent in Westeros — but must live out her days in Vaes Dothrak , the Dothraki's only city. In many ways therefore, it does not seem that women are held in high regard by the Dothraki. Both Dothraki men and women are expected to ride horses at all times; only slaves walk, and only cripples or women actively in the middle of childbirth ride in carts.

Yet there are other indications that Dothraki attitudes towards women are more complex than appearances suggest. While women cannot lead khalasars , the horse lords don't have a "male-preference inheritance system" for determining successive leadership, because they actually have no formal inheritance system: When a khal dies, there is no guarantee that his khalasar will follow his son — like the Free Folk in Westeros, the Dothraki follow strength above all else.

If his son is only an infant, or if he has no sons, the khalasar will break up into new smaller ones commanded by his former lieutenants. Therefore, while political rule among the Dothraki excludes women, it can't really be considered "patrilineal" either. Both men and women are expected to ride everywhere on horses — even pregnant women, who are apparently not considered weak due to their condition.

Only slaves walk on foot — indeed, being forced to walk on foot is considered a great shame among the Dothraki and often used a punishment. The only people in a khalasar who are carried in horse-drawn carts are the feeble, the injured, the very old and very young, and pregnant women are in the middle of childbirth the whole khalasar doesn't stop moving just because one woman went into labor. Daenerys Targaryen meets with the dosh khaleen , the all-female priesthood of the Dothraki, who are widows of dead khals.

Khals can also have a great deal of respect for their mothers: Khal Mengo, who was the first leader to unite all of the Dothraki and led their first great outburst of conquest during the Century of Blood , was said to have been counseled by his mother, the purported witch-queen Doshi.

Interestingly, the only Dothraki "priesthood" of any sort is all-female; the Dosh khaleen who reside in Vaes Dothrak. Made up of the widows of dead khals, the dosh khaleen whose name literally means "council of crones" serve as seers and wise-women. The Dothraki believe in all manner of omens and portents, and these women are responsible for interpreting such signs to determine when it is favorable to go to war.

Even the most powerful khal would be hesitant to defy the word the dosh khaleen. Thus women can achieve powerful positions in Dothraki society, specifically dominating their clergy, which can dictate sexual mores. While these widows are apparently celibate, the Dothraki do not actually have a celibate clerical order ; it is not a "lifestyle choice" that any woman can make, but applies only to the few women who ever marry khals.

The dosh khaleen don't "choose" celibacy; by definition they have all had sex before — they are all widows — and are attended by eunuchs who protect them, so apparently they are no longer sexually active. As such, there isn't a strong reason for the dosh khaleen to denounce sex among ordinary Dothraki men and women, whether procreative or not. The Dothraki language developed by David J. Peterson offers no specific clues to sexuality or gender roles; Dothraki pronouns make no gender distinctions, and while regular nouns do have gender, they are not divided between male and female categories.

Rather, they distinguish between animate and inanimate "gender" categories like the Basque language and many real-life Native American languages.

Dothraki does distinguish between male and female goats, but it uses entirely separate words; "dorvi" male goat and "jin" female goat - just as in English "stallion" male horse and "mare" female horse are separate words for different genders of the same kind of animal. Little can be firmly read into these points, however, about the broader Dothraki conceptualizations regarding human gender behaviors.

The novels have never mentioned what the Dothraki attitudes towards homosexual behavior and gender patterns are. For all we know, they might have a concept of more than two genders, like the Native American "Two Spirit" model the Dothraki are loosely inspired by a mix of real-life Turkic and Native American peoples. Just because a Dothraki warrior behaves in ways the men of Westeros find to be "masculine" doesn't mean he doesn't also have sex with men.

Like in Medieval Europe, the Dothraki conception of gender may be based more on a dichotomy of penetrator vs. Alternatively, the Dothraki could have the same views about homosexuality and gender binary as men in Westeros: the narrative simply has not given any information on the subject i.

Drogo and Daenerys at their wedding; as is typical of Dothraki weddings the feast was filled with wild public orgies and fighting. A Dothraki wedding without at least three deaths is considered a dull affair. The Dothraki have very different attitudes towards shame of the body than people in Westeros or the Free Cities; everything in a khalasar is done in the open, so public nudity or publicly having sex in front of a crowd isn't considered shameful.

Dothraki even openly hold wild orgies in front of crowds gathered at wedding ceremonies. On their wedding night, the husband and wife ride out into the fields to have sex for the first time in the open air, not in a tent, as they believe that anything important in life should be witnessed by the sky, not hidden.

This does seem to be congruent with the fact that the Dothraki do not have a celibate clerical order. Societies in real life with non-celibate clergies are generally more tolerant of non-procreative sex among the non-clergy. Mirri Maz Duur , a "godswife" priestess of the Lhazareen. The Lhazareen are a culture of peaceful shepherds and farmers who live in Lhazar , a hilly land south of the Dothraki Sea and northeast of Slaver's Bay. Very little has been described about the Lhazareen and their culture, but certain points have been mentioned: They worship a single deity known as the Great Shepherd , reflecting their animal-herding lifestyle.

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